Two kettle / Ohenonpa

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Oohenonpa ('two boilings' ). A division of the Teton Sioux, commonly known as Two Kettle Sioux, or Two Kettles; also a subdivision thereof. 

No mention of it is made by Lewis and Clark, Long, or other earlier explorers. 

It is stated in a note to De Smet's Letters (1843) that the band was estimated at 800 persons. 

Culbertson (1850) estimated them at 60 lodges, but gives no locality and says they have no divisions. 

Gen. Warren (1856) found them much scattered among other bands and numbering about 100 lodges. 

Cumming (Rep. Ind. Aff. for 1856) places them on the s. side of the Missouri. 

Hayden (1862) says they passed up and down Cheyenne r. as far as Cherry cr. and Moreau and Grand rs., not uniting with other bands. 

Their principal chief then was Matotopa, or Four Bears, a man of moderate capacity but exercising a good influence on his people. They lived entirely on the plains, seldom going to war, and were good hunters and shrewd in their dealings with the traders. They treated with respect white children who came among them as traders or visitors. 

They were on the warpath in 1866 at the time of the Ft Phil. Kearney massacre, yet it is not certain that they took an active part in this attack. By teaty made at Ft Sully, Dak., on Oct. 19, 1865, they agreed to cease attacking whites or Indians except in self defense and to settle permanently on designated lands. This treaty was signed on their behalf by chiefs Chatanskah (White Hawk), Shonkahwakkonkedeshkah (Setted Horse), Mahtotopah (Four Bears), and others, and was faithfully observed by them unless they were in the Sitting Buff uprising of 1876, which is doubtful.

Neither contagion nor war materially reduced the number of the Oohenonpa, which seems to have remained comparatively stationary up to 1887, when it was reported as 642, the last separate official enumeration. 

They reside on Cheyenne River res., S. Dak., with Sihasapa, Miniconjou, and Sans Arcs.

Only two subdivisions were known to Dorsey, the Oohenonpah and Iawakhota. 

Kettle band.- Culbertson in Smithson. Rep . 1850 142 ,18,51. 1851. 

Kettle band Sioux - Gumming in If. R. Es. Doe. 65, 34th Cong., 1st ses.., 4, 1856. 

Niti'a-o-iih'-a-is.- Hayden, Ethnog. and l'hilnl. No. Vol., 290, 1862 

(Cheyenne name). Ohanapa.


The posting above was originally published in 1906 as part of a two volume set of books titled, Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, by Frederick Webb Hodge, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

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