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Brule / Sichanghu

Sichanghu ('burnt thighs') A band of the Brule Teton Sioux.

Brule ('burned,' the French translation of, Sichangu, `burnt thighs,' their own name, of indefinite origin). A subtribe of the Teton division of the great Dakota tribe. They are mentioned by Lewis and Clark (1804) as the Tetons of the Burnt Woods, numbering about 300 men, "who rove on both sides of the Missouri, White, and Teton rivers." 

In 1806 they were on the east side of the Missouri from the mouth of the White to Teton river. Hayden (Ethnog. and Philol. 1fo. Valley, 372, 1862) describes the country inhabited by them in 1850 as on the headwaters of the White and Niobrara, extending down these rivers about, half their length, Teton river forming the north limit. He also says they were for a number of years heaed by a chief named Makozaza, very friendly to the whites, who by uniformly good management and just government kept his people in order, regulated their hunts, and usually avoided placing them in the starving situations incident to hands led by less judicious chiefs. 

They were good hunters, usually well clothed and supplied with meat, and had comfortable lodges and a large number of horses. They varied their occupations by hunting buffalo, catching wild horses, and snaking war expeditions against the Arikara, then stationed on the Platte, or the Pawnee, lower down on that river. Every summer excursions were made by the young men into the Platte and Arkansas country in quest of wild horses, which abounded there at that time. 

After emigrants to California and Oregon began to pass through the Dakota country, the Brule suffered more from diseases introduced by them than any other division of the tribe, being nearest to the trail. The treaty of Apr. 29, 1868, between the Sioux bands and the Government was in a large degree brought about through the exertions of Swift Bear, a Brule chief. Nevertheless, it was about this time or shortly after that a band of Brule¦ took part in the attack on Maj. Forsyth on Republican river. Hayden gives 150 as the number of their lodges in 1856. 

In 1890 the Upper Brule on Rosebud reservation, South Dakota, numbered 3,245; the Lower Brule at Crowcreek and Lower Brule agency, South Dakota, 1,026. Their present number as distinct from the other Teton is not given.

The group is divided geographically into the Kheyatawichasha or Upper Brule, the Kutawichasha or Lower Brule, and the Brule of the Platte.

The subdivisions are given by different authorities as follows:

In 1880 Tatankawakan, a Brule, gave to J. O. Dorsey the names of 13 bands of the Brule, Upper and Lower: 

Rev. W. J. Cleveland (MS. list, 1884) enumerates the modern divisions as: 

The Brule of the Platte, not included in the above lists, are a part of the Brule (Stanley in Poole, Among the Sioux, 232, 1881) formerly connected with Whetstone.

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