Sammanfattning av Huguenothistorien här

Felting a beaver hat
Brief history of beaver hats and trade
HOLLAND OCH HATTAR 2:2 1992 The Huguenot Diaspora John Fletcher University of East Anglia Diasporas are often set in motion by an act of persecution, massacre , or other violent action on the part of the majority against a minority. The persecuted minority is then dispersed; more often than not, it includes the elite responsible for much ofthe commercial and cultural activity ofthe persecuting nation and goes on to enrich the cultural and commercial life of the new host country. Moreover, in addition to the undoubted short- and medium-term damage in terms of loss of commercial and cultural effectiveness, history frequently exacts long-term revenge as well, so that, both sooner and later, the persecutors are punished for their act of intolerance. The reverse is hardly if ever true, that is, that the new hosts regret the generosity of their welcome: far from subverting the culture of the new homeland—the allegation habitually proffered in the former country to justify the initial persecution—the refugees contribute valuably to it. Thus, the irrational paranoia at the root of hatred of minorities carries its own baleful punishment.

The diaspora of the Protestants of France—known as Huguenots—is a case in point. It constituted, without doubt, the destruction of an elite. It can plausibly be argued that it was a factor in the French loss of Canada. And there is no missing the irony of the fact that the military governor of the Atlantic stronghold of Brest during the last world war, a notoriously ungentle Wehrmacht officer, was a man of Huguenot descent. In 1985, 300 years after it happened, President Mitterrand apologized on behalf of the French people for Louis XTVs revocation of the Edict ofNantes, a decision that intensified the persecution ofthe country's Protestants and precipitated one of the largest forced migrations of modern times.

The Edict of Nantes (1598) had ended a long period of religious strife in France, but it left the Protestant minority in an entrenched position, which became increasingly irksome to the Catholic absolute monarchy. Accordingly, in 1685, less than a century after its promulgation, the Edict was simply annulled by royal diktat. Stripped of their legal protection and civil 251 Diaspora 2:2 1992 rights, the Huguenots were harassed by the military until they agreed to take the sacraments of their ruler's church or until, tormented beyond endurance, they fled the country. Such gestures as Mitterrand's apology, which was accompanied by the issue of a commemorative postage stamp with the motto "Tolerance, Pluralism, Brotherhood," are not empty. Chancellor Kohl has similarly expressed sorrow for what his country did in Crete during the last war. His predecessor, Willy Brandt, famously knelt in contrition at the site ofthe Warsaw ghetto. The British and French governments have formally repudiated the Munich agreement , declaring it null and void. One could multiply the examples. In every case the practical effect was nil, but the symbolic importance was considerable. Likewise, it is perfectly reasonable for the Asian countries to insist, before they are prepared to turn the page, on a public expression of regret from the Japanese for their aggression of50 years ago. Solemn declarations acknowledging past errors close a chapter, set the record straight, and indicate a decisive, if belated, acceptance of the reality of the historical record and a willingness to come to terms with it. So, three centuries after the event, France made amends for the persecution ofthe Huguenots. Joseph Fouché's famously cynical dictum "Worse than a crime: a blunder" has been applied to various forms of state wickedness, but it fits with particular aptness the treatment that Louis XTV meted out to his Protestant subjects. Until he betrayed their trust, they were intensely loyal to him; their bitterness at what they saw as unprovoked rejection made them formidable enemies when they volunteered for service in the foreign armies ranged in alliance against him. 

oreover, they were industrious people who were skilled at making things, especially valueadded luxury goods, which France exported and which the world was eager to pay good specie for; after their expulsion they enriched other countries instead. In one stroke France lost much of her business and manufacturing elite and stored…


 It proved disastrous to the Huguenots and costly for France. It precipitated civil bloodshed, ruined commerce, and resulted in the illegal flight from the country of hundreds of thousands of Protestants many of whom were intellectuals, doctors and business leaders whose skills were transferred to Britain as well as Holland, Prussia, South Africa and other places they fled to. 4,000 emigrated to the Thirteen Colonies, where they settled, especially in New York, the Delaware River Valley in Eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey,[18] and Virginia. The English authorities welcomed the French refugees, providing money from both government and private agencies to aid their relocation. Those Huguenots who stayed in France were subsequently forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism and were called "new converts".[54]

After this, the Huguenots (with estimates ranging from 200,000 to 1,000,000[2]) fled to Protestant countries: England, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, and Prussia—whose Calvinist Great Elector Frederick William welcomed them to help rebuild his war-ravaged and underpopulated country. Following this exodus, Huguenots remained in large numbers in only one region of France: the rugged Cévennes region in the south. There were also some Calvinists in the Alsace region, which then belonged to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. In the early 18th century, a regional group known as the Camisards (who were Huguenots of the mountainous Massif Central region) rioted against the Catholic Church, burning churches and killing the clergy. It took French troops years to hunt down and destroy all the bands of Camisards, between 1702 and 1709.[55]

Immigration and the Diffusion of Technology: The Huguenot Diaspora in Prussia∗ Erik Hornung† Ifo, Munich August 2, 2010 Abstract This paper analyzes the long-term effect of technological diffusion on productivity caused by immigration of skilled workers. In 1685 religious persecution drove highly skilled Huguenots into the backward BrandenburgPrussia where they established themselves and transferred technological knowledge to natives. We find that textile manufactories installed in towns hosting the Huguenots achieved higher productivity than others due to diffusion, even 100 years after immigration. Identification is based on an instrumental variable approach exploiting variation in the settlement of Huguenots which results from population losses due to plagues during the Thirty Years’ War, effectively eliminating worries of selectivity in the settlement pattern.

Om inte hugenotterna så smått börjatt fltta till Belgien ifrån Frankrike efter Bartolomeinatten 1572, hade inte Hollands guldålder blivit densamma som den blev.
Man anlade en koloni i Florida. Hugenotter ledde också kolonisationen av St Lawrence i början.
Sverige fick ta emot den industriella kapacitet som Louis De Geer innebar av Vallonerna.
Antalet valloner som kom att stanna i Sverige var litet, det är dock osäkert exakt hur många det rörde sig om. Nationalencyklopedin anger att 900 individer stannade i Sverige permanent.[1] De Geers anteckningar anger 134 vallonska arbetare som fram till 1633 kommit enbart till Norrköping. Ungefär 20 procent av vallonerna återvände till sitt hemland efter en första kontraktsperiod, en del från och med 1654 då religionsfriheten i Sverige inskränktes (i samband med drottning Kristinas abdikation); majoriteten av vallonerna var reformerta.
Utan dem hade Sveriges deltagande i 30-åriga kriget inte blivit av.
Man tog med sig mycket av frankrikes hantverkskunnande. Så tillverkningen av bäverhattar
Då hade inte modet med bäverhattar blivit så stort.
Då hade inte utvecklingen i Nordamerika blivit den det blev.

Efter Revocationen av ediktet i Nantes 1685 Edict of Fontaineblue kom en andra flyktingström, då flydde mellan 200.000 och en miljon hugenotter till bl a England, Alsace o s samt vidare till Nordamerika. Palatinerna till irokeslandet och vidare till Tulpehocken.

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