google-site-verification=xIcd-JNpwhS1jhq_3VW-d_DmkWzCngQyOEy0u0dD-TU

Ohiodalen och De stora sjöarna - Det franska upplandet ”Pays d’en Haut" 

När Samuel de Champlain grundade Quebec som en del av Nya Frankrike 1608, så dröjde det inte länge förrän han skickade skogslöpare (coureur des bois) som t ex Étienne Brûlé för att få kunkskap om landet och för att skapa relationer och allianser med indianerna i området. Kring 1615 eller 1616 färdades Champlain själv till Georgian Bay via French river och där mötte han Ottowa och Huronindianer nära Manitoulin Island.
  Under årtiondena som följde utforskades ”Upplandet” ”Pays d’en haut” av forskningsresande och missionärer och förstås förväntansfulla pälsjägare. Som vanligt var vid den här tiden fanns alltid i bakgrunden ett hopp om att hitta västervägen till Indien eller Kina, nordvästpassagen.
  1634 passerade Jean Nicolet Mackinacsundet (Straits of Mackinac) och han nådde ända fram till Wisconsin.
  Samtidigt som fransmännen trängde västerut från St Lawrence, så hade ju holländare och engelsmän börjat kolonisera den Nordamerikanska östkusten och krävde sin del av pälsfångsten. För att få support av indianer, så kom man efterhand att beväpna irokesförbundets stammar med eldvapen.
Tävlandet om bävermarkerna var en av orsakerna till de förödande ”Beaver Wars”, som i sin tur eskalerade i ”sorgekrigen” (Mourning wars) som blev en irokesisk metod att hålla befolkningsantalet intakt genom tvångsadoptioner av krigsfångar. Irokeserna kom att tränga västerut från sina kärnområden i nuv staten New York. Under bäverkrigen verkar det faktiskt som om man anföll och tillintetgjorde andra grupper som talade likartat språk, alltså iroqouoian. Eventuellt var detta gjort med beräkning. Men kring 1740 menade man sig faktiskt i kraft av erövringar dominera hela den nordöstdra scenen, inklusive de algonkintalandes traditionella jaktmarker. Men först hade man alltså angripit Huronerna nordliga stammar i södra Ontario (1649) och tillintetgjorde dem fullständigt. Bland huronerna hade jesuitmissionärer arbetat, vilket i sin tur gjorde att de missionärshatande mohawkirokeserna blev mer mottagliga för den katolska missionen då de adopterat in kanske en tredjedel av sin totala numerär med kristna huroner!! Så kan det gå. De kvarvarande självständiga huronerna sökte sig nya befolkningscentra och hörs därefter av under (deras egentligen egna beteckning) wyandoter. Nedan en karta över de nya bosättningarna kring Detroit, Windsor och nordliga Ohiolandet. Från 1651 fanns de också vid Michilimackinac
  Vid tiden för bäverkrigens slut under 1660 och 1670-talen hade Potawatomi flytt från norra Michigan och Anishinaabe/Algonquian(OjibwaPotawatomi and Odawa) dominerade området. 

JESUITMISSIONERNA
Huronerna var mer benägna att acceptera jesuitmissionärer än vad stammarna i Irokesförbundet gjorde. Norr om Stora sjöarna hade man grundat sin första missionsstation 1639 vid Sault Ste. Marie. Efter irokesernas utplånande av huronernas städer 1649 återvände jesuitmissionärerna till Nya Frankrike och de kvarlevande huronerna bosatte sig i Wendake.

Kring 1660 började Frankrike en expansionspolitik mot det inre av Nordamerika från östra Canada. Några av syftena var förstås att hitta nordvästpassagen till Kina, att exploatera naturresurserna, då främst jakten på bäver men givetvis var man undrande kring mineralfyndigheter och slutligen hade man ambitionen att omvända indianerna till katolicismen. Pälsjägare började som sagt utforska Pays d’en haut

1659 nådde Pierre-Esprit Radisson och Médard Chouart des Groseilliers Lake Superiors västra strand.  Präster grundade missioner, som t ex t Sault Sainte Marie 1668. 1671 etablerade Father Jacques Marquette missionen Michilimackinac som under ett halvt århundrade kom att bli ett centrum för forskningsfärder, för diplomatiska mellanhavande med indianerna och ett kommersiellt centrum för pälshandeln, till dess att Cadillac tvingade över verksamheten till ”sundet” (detroit) som först kallades Fort Pontchartrdain och senare helt enkelt just ”Detroit” .

Wood, Edwin Orin, 1861-
Historic Mackinac; the historical, picturesque and legendary features of the Mackinac country / bu Edwin O. Wood. - New York : The Macmillan compmany, 1918. 
    Vol 1. - 678 s. : ill.
    Vol 2. - 773 s. : ill. -  BibliographyIndex.
"Volume II is largely a collection of extracts from books long since out of print, all of which will ever hold an important place in the story of the "Fairy Isle"."--Foreward to vol.II.



Nedför Mississippi
Den 17 maj 1673, började Louis Jolliet och Jacques Marquette utforskandet av  Mississippifloden, som de kallade Sioux Tongo (”Den stora floden") or Michissipi. De nådde mynningen av Arkansasfloden, återvände sedan uppströms efter att ha konstaterat att den stora flodens sträckning var mot Mexikanska golfen och inte, som man hade hoppas mot Stilla havet. 

Norrut<

Söderut



Northern expansion[edit]

In what are today Ontario, part of Minnesota and the eastern prairies, various trading posts and forts were built such as Fort Kaministiquia (1679), Fort Frontenac (1673), Fort Saint Pierre (1731), Fort Saint Charles (1732) and Fort Rouillé (1750).

Southern expansion[edit]

In 1701. Antoine Laumet de La Mothe founded Detroit. He built Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, which became the center of French military presence in the region. Other forts in the area strengthen the network such as Fort Niagara (1678), Fort Crevecoeur (1680), Fort de Buade (1683), Fort Saint-Louis du Rocher (1683), Fort Saint Antoine (1686), Fort Saint-Joseph (1691), Fort Michilimackinac (1715), Fort Miami (1715), Fort La Baye (1717), Fort Ouiatenon (1717), Fort Chagouamigon (1718), and Fort Beauharnois(1727). These forts provided French sovereignty in the area and facilitated commerce with the natives. In 1717, southern areas nearer the Mississippi River, known as the Illinois Country, were transferred from Canada to French Louisiana.

Settlements[edit]

The French settlements in the Pays d'en Haut south of the Great Lakes were Detroit, La BayeSault Sainte-MarieSaint Ignace, and Vincennes. Vincennes was later attached to Pays des Illinois, which was part of Louisiana. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144.[2]

Protecting the Pays d'en Haut were four forts: Fort Presque Isle (1753), Fort Le Boeuf (1753), Fort Duquesne (1754), and Fort Machault (1754).

Jesuitmissionen St.Ignace 1671-1696.

Jesuiten Father Marquette grundade mission St. Ignace 1671. While the Beaver Wars raged on, Marquette evangelized the Indians, planted a large cross in Cross Village and established a mission in L'Arbre Croche ("Crooked Tree," now known as Harbor Springs). From May 17, 1673 until Marquette's death near Ludington on May 18, 1675, Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet explored and mapped Lake Michigan and the northern portion of the Mississippi River. In 1679, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Father Louis Hennepin set out on Le Griffon to find the Northwest Passage; it was the first known sailing ship to sail in Northern Michigan. They sailed across Lake ErieLake Huron, and Lake Michigan through uncharted waters, which previously only men in canoes had explored. After Marquette's death, the mission was taken over by Father Phillip Pierson, and then Father Nouvel.[54]

Father Henri Nouvel was "superior of the Ottowa mission",[55] Nouvel served in this position from 1672 to 1680 (with a two-year break in 1678-1679), and again from 1688 to 1695.[56] Under Nouvel, a new chapel was built in approximately 1674. By 1683 the mission was so successful and prosperous that three priests, Fathers Nicholas Potier, Enjalran, and Pierre Bailloquet, were assigned there.[54]The establishment of a French garrison at St. Ignace in 1679 disrupted relations between the French and the local population, as the soldiers were less educated and amiable than the missionaries.

1680s: Fortification (Fort de Buade) at St. Ignace[edit]

In 1683, Governor Joseph-Antoine de La Barre ordered Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut and Olivier Morel de La Durantaye to establish a strategic presence on the north shore of the Straits of Mackinac, which connected Lake Michigan and Lake Huron of the Great Lakes. They fortified the Jesuit mission at St. Ignace and La Durantaye settled in as overall commander of the French forts in the northwest: Fort Saint Louis des Illinois (Utica, Illinois); Fort Kaministigoya (Thunder Bay, Ontario); and Fort la Tourette (Lake Nipigon, Ontario). He was also responsible for the region around Green Bay in present-day Wisconsin. In the spring of 1684, La Durantaye led a relief expedition from Saint Ignace to Fort Saint Louis des Illinois, which had been besieged by the Seneca (part of the Iroquois Confederacy) as part of the Beaver Wars; they sought to gain more hunting grounds in order to control the lucrative fur trade. That summer and again in 1687, La Durantaye led coureurs de bois and Indians from the Straits against the Seneca homeland in the territory of western upper New York state. During these years, English traders from New York penetrated the Great Lakes and also traded at Michilimackinac. This, and the outbreak of war between England and France in 1689, led to the new commandant Louis de La Porte de Louvigny directing construction of Fort de Buade in 1690.

1690s: Cadillac at Fort de Buade; St. Ignace Fort and Mission later abandoned[edit]

In the 1690s, commander Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac used Fort de Buade as a base of operations to explore and map the Great Lakes. Cadillac left St. Ignace in 1697 and the Jesuits vacated their residence and church by 1705.[57]

The Beaver Wars ended when the Great Peace of Montreal was signed in 1701 in Montreal by the French and 39 Indian chiefs including Kondiaronk (the chief of the Mackinaw-area Huron). When Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac left the area in 1701 to found Detroit, taking many of the St. Ignace residents with him, the importance of the mission declined dramatically.[54]

Early 1700s: Fort Michilimackinac established as a New France outpost[edit]

Map of French and British North American possessions in the early 18th century. After ceding Hudson's Bay to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht, France built forts such as Fort Michilimackinac to protect the New France fur trade from the British Hudson's Bay Company.

Northern Michigan as shown on a 1755 Map of New France showing various islands, land features, rivers, and settlements. (In French, "I. du Castor" means Beaver Island, "L'ours qui dort" means The Bear That Sleeps, and "Ance au tonnerre" means Thunder Bay). The map also shows several rivers that retained some similar names: Rue Aux Buscies, and Rue d'OulamanittieRue du Pierre Marquet.

The St. Ignace mission remained open until 1705, when it was abandoned and burned by Father Étienne de Carheil.[58] It was reopened in 1712, and operated on the north shore of the Straits until 1741, when it was relocated to the south shore.[59] With the relocation of the mission, the exact location of Marquette's chapel was lost.[58]

In 1712, at the beginning of a 25-year war between the French and the Fox tribe, Canadian Governor Philippe de Rigaud de Vaudreuilsent Constant le Marchand de Lignery to reoccupy the former post of Michilimackinac, which had been abandoned in 1696 by royal orders.

Around 1715 (during the First Fox War), the French re-established a Northern Michigan military outpost at a new site on the northern tip of the lower peninsula and called it Fort Michilimackinac. This location became the new locus for fur and other trade, and mission work with the natives.

Lignery returned to the command of Michilimackinac in 1722 after an absence of about three years fighting the Fox in Illinois. He carried out the orders of acting Governor Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil and (starting in 1726) New France governor Charles de la Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois.

From 1720 to 1722, Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix stopped at Michilimackinac and other points in Northern Michigan while seeking a Pacific Ocean passage. In 1728, fur trader Augustin Langlade obtained a fur trading license at Michilimackinac. He and his half-Ottawa son Charles Michel de Langlade (born at the fort in 1729) would later strongly influence the Northern Michigan fur trade as well as French relations with Great Lakes tribes during the 1712 to 1733 Fox Wars and the 1754–1763 French and Indian War.

By 1745, the Odawa had created settlements down the coast of Lake Michigan into the Grand Traverse Bay area, with an approximate population between 1,550 and 3,000. This population varied with the seasons, as the tradition was to migrate inland to different camps (sometimes as far as to Illinois) depending upon the season.[60] Some Ojibwe bands also shared the Grand Traverse Bay region with the Odawa.[60]

In 1751, a Jesuit Mission to the Odawa was established in Manistee.[61]När Frankrike blev medvetet om den enorma ekonomiska fördel som deras koloni ”Nya Frankrike” visade sig vara…

  Nu var det ju så att till en början ansåg man i Frankrike att kolonin inte skulle konkurrera med annan verksamhet..

550px-Huronie

Jesuiterna var ju tidigt ute i missionsärenden bland indianerna runt De Stora Sjöarna.  Upptäcktsresanden Fader Marquette hade ju anlagt en mission Saint-Ignacius Loyola 1671 placerad vid ”Straits of Mackinac” som förbinder Lake Huron och Lake Michigan. Kring 1680 hade det också vuxit fram ett litet nybygge till gagn för pälshandeln. Stugor byggdes, indianerna uppförde läger. 1681 byggdes Fort Buade (oftare kallat Fort Michillimackinac) som ett skydd för missionen. Snart blev det den viktigaste länken i det system av franska handelposter i Stora Sjöområdet under senare delen av 1600-talet. Här kom också att finnas en beväpnad garnison. Bl a på grund av motsättningar mellan Cadillac och jesuiterna flyttas tyngdpunkten senare (1701) till Fort Pontchartrian (senare välkänt som Fort Detroit). (Jesuitern höll sig kvar vid St Ignace till 1706, men då övergav  även de området. I sinom tid när det franska medvetandet om beteydelsen av pälshandeln ökade återuppbyggdes till slut Fort Michillimacinac 1712.


Fort Mchillimacinac
Mchilimacinac


Tidiga resor 

Perrot, Nicolas
The Indian tribes of the upper Mississippi Valley and region of the Great Lakes as described by Nicolas Perrot, French commandant in the Northwest ; Bacqueville de la Potherie, French royal commissioner to Canada ; Morrell Marston, American Army officer ; and Thomas Forsyth, United States agent at Fort Armstrong / translated, edited, annotated and with bibliography and index by Emma Helen Blair ; with portraits, maps, facsimiles, and views. - 1911.
  Vol 1.  Vol 2.

Hennepin, Louis
A new discovery of a vast country in America. - 1698 (1903)
   Vol 1.      Vol 2.

Hennepin, Louis
Description of Louisiana. - 1683. (1880)

Om Louis Hennepins skrifter:

Neill, Edward D.
The writings of Louis Hennepin, Recollect Franciscan missionary.
 
Prepared for the monthly meeting of the Department of American history, Minnesota historical society, on September 6, 1880, at Minneapolis. 
By Rev. Edward D. Neill. - 1880.

Lescarbot, Marc
Nova Francia, or, The description of that part of New France which is one continent with Virginia / described in the three late voyages and plantation made by Mons. de Monts, Mons. du Pont-Gravé, and Mons. de Poutrincourt, into the countries called by the Frenchmen La Cadia, lying to the southwest of Cape Breton : together with and excellent several treaty of all the commodities of the said countries, and manners of the natural inhabitants of the sametranslated out of the French into English by P.E. - 1745.    Alt utg.    History of New France

Weiser, Conrad
Narrative of a journey from Tulpehocken, in Pennsylvania, to Onondago, the headquarters of the Six nations of Indians, made in 1737 by Conrad Weiser. -  

Weiser, Conrad
Conrad Weiser's journal of a tour to the Ohio, August 11-October 2, 1748 1748 ...
 1904.

Walton, Joseph S
Conrad Weiser and the indian policy of colonial Pennsylvania. - 1900.

Weiser, C Z
The life of (John) Conrad Weiser the german pioneer, patriot and Patron of two races. - 1876.

Loskiel, George Henry 1740-1814
History of the mission of the United Brethren among the Indians in North America
 in three parts by George Henry Loskiel ; translated from the German by Christian Ignatius LaTrobe. - 1794    Alt utg.    Svenska utg.

Post, Christian Frederick, 1710?-1785
Two journals of western tours 

Cobb, William H.
Monument to, and history of the Mingo Indians 
facts and traditions about this tribe, their wars, chiefs, camps, villages and trails. Monument dedicated to their memory near the village of Mingo, in Tygarts River Valley of West Virginia. - Addresses and articles by William H. Cobb, Andrew Price [and] Hu Maxwell. 

Published 1921

Dodge, J . R.
Red men of the Ohio Valley
 : an aboriginal history of the period commencing A.D. 1650, and ending at the treaty of Greenville, A.D. 1795 ; embracing notable facts and thrilling incidents in the settlement by the whites of the states of Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. - 1860.

Harrison, William Henry 1773-1841
A discourse on the aborigines of the valley of the Ohio : In which the opinions of the conquest of that valley by the Iroquois, or Six Nations, in the seventeenth century, supported by Cadwallader Colden, of New York, Governor Pownal, of Massachusetts, Dr. Franklin, the Hon. De Witt Clinton, of New York, and Judge Haywood, of Tennessee, are examined and contested : To which are prefixed some remarks on the study of history. - 1838.

Agnew, Daniel 1809-1902
Logstown, on the Ohio : a historical sketch. - Historic Pittsburgh General Text Collection.  Table of contents 

Darlington, Mary Carson 1824-1915
History of Colonel Henry Bouquet and the western frontiers of Pennsylvania, 1747-1764 / collected and edited by Mary Carson Darlington. - Privatedly printed : ca 1920. - 224 p. : Index. Contents.


Fernow
, Berthold 1837-1908
The Ohio Valley in colonial days. - 1890.

Harrison, H
A discourse of the aborigines of Ohio....

Roosevelt, Theodore
The winning of the west.
 Vol 1  Vol 2  Vol 3  (Alt 3)  Vol 4  Vol 5   Vol 6


                                                                       
Williamson, Peter
The life and curious adventures of Peter Williamson who were carried off from Aberdeen and sold for a slave. - New ed. - Aberdeen : Printed for the booksellers, 1826. - 155 s.  +
  Fångenskap hos cherokee.


MIAMI INDIANS

YoungCalvin 1851-
Little Turtle (Me-she-kin-no-quah) : the great chief of the Miami Indian nation ; being a sketch of his life together with that of Wm. Wells and some noted descendants - 
  

Trent, William 1715-1787
Journal of Captain William Trent from Logstown to Pickawillany, A.D. 1752 : now published for the first time from a copy in the archives of the Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio, together with letters of Governor Robert Dinwiddie ; an historical notice of the Miamiconfederacy of Indians ; a sketch of the English poet at Pickawillany, with a short biography of Captain Trent, and other papers never before printed - 1871.


Slocum, Frances 1773-1847
Biography of Frances Slocum, the lost sister of Wyoming. A complete narrative of her captivity and wanderings among the Indians -  Meginness, John Franklin, 1827
  Bibliography: p. 234-238. Fångenskapsskildring.

IROKESER

Mohawk

FreySamuel Ludlow 1833-1924
The Mohawks : an inquiry into their origin, migrations and influence upon the white settlers - 1898.

O'Callaghan, Edmund Bailey, 1797-1880 ed
Papers relating to De Courcelles' and De Tracy's expeditions against the Mohawk Indians 1665-66.

Spencer, Oliver 1781-1838.
Narrative of Oliver M. Spencer : comprising an account of his captivity among the Mohawk Indians in North America. - 1854. 
  Fångenskapsskildring.

Jogues, Isaac 1607-1646
.Narrative of a captivity among the Mohawk Indians, and a description of New Netherland in 1642-3.


Documents relating to the history and settlements of the towns along the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers (with the exception of Albany) : from 1630 to 1684, and also illustrating the relations of the settlers with the Indians.

Palmer, William E.
Memoir of the distinguished Mohawk Indian chief, sachen and warrior, Capt Joseph Brant. - 1872.

Campbell, William W., 1806-1881
The border warfare of New York, during the revolution : or, the annals of Tryon county - 1849.

Revolutionskriget

Thwaites, Reuben Gold, 1853-1913
Documentary history of Dunmore's war, 1774. -  Madison : Wisconsin historical society,1905. - 472 s. : ill. - [(Draper series ; 1)]  Index.

Thwaites, Reuben Gold, 1853-1913
The revolution on the upper Ohio, 1775-1777. - Madison : Wisconsin historical society, 1908. - 275 s : ill. - (Draper series ; 2). Index.

Thwaites, Reuben Gold, 1853-1913
Frontier defense on the upper Ohio, 1777-1778 : compiled from the Draper manuscripts in the library of the Wisconsin Historical Society and pub. at the charge of the Wisconsin Society of the Sons of the American Revolution.  - Madison : Wisconsin historical society, 1912. - 329 s. : ill. - (Draper series ; 3) Index.



Knight, John d 1838.
Indian atrocities : narratives of the perils and sufferings of Dr. Knight and John Slover, among the Indians, during the Revolutionary War : with short memoirs of Col. Crawford & John Slover and a letter from H. Brackinridge, on the rights of the Indians, etc - 1867.
  Cover title: Narratives of Knight and Slover

Lenape Delaware

Virginia algonkins 


1753 Fort Le Boeuf


1754 Fort Duquesne

1755 Braddock expedition

1758 Fort Stanwix

1758 Fort Ligionier

1758 Fort Bedford

1759 Fort Pitt

1760 Fort Venango 

1761-1763 Fort Sandusky

1763 Pontiacs war   Page Pontiacs rebellion

1761-1763 Fort Sandusky

1769  Daniel Boone At the treaty of Fort Stanwix,  the Iroquois but not the Shawnee, had ceded their claim to Kentucky to the British. In spite of this, or without knowingh that, 
Boone began a two-year hunting expedition in Kentucky On May 11, 1769,
1773, On September 25,Boone packed up his family and, with a group of about 50 emigrants, began the first attempt by British colonists to establish a settlement in Kentucky. Following the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, American Indians in the region had been debating what to do about the influx of settlers. This group had decided, in the words of historian John Mack Faragher, "to send a message of their opposition to settlement…." James Boone and William Russell's son Henry were captured and gruesomely tortured to death. The brutality of the killings sent shock waves along the frontier, and Boone's party abandoned its expedition. The massacre was one of the first events in what became known as Dunmore's war.

Hartley, Cecil B.
Life and times of Colonel Daniel Boone comprising history of the early settlement of Kentucky / by Cecil B Hartley ; to which is added colonel Boone’s autobiography complete, as dictated to John Filson, and published in 1784 ; illustrated with engravings…1859.

1774 Lord Dunmore's war

Dodge, Jacob Richard
Red Men of the Ohio Valley : An Aboriginal History of the Period Commencing A.D. 1650, and Ending ...by J. R. Dodge. -  Springfield : Ruralist Publishing Company, 1860. - 435 s.

DANIEL BOONE OCH LANDJOBBARNA



1775-1783 American Revolutionary war

1785-1795 North West Indian War (Little Turtles war)




 https://archive.org/stream/lifecuriousadven00will#page/154/mode/2up

© Staffan Jansson 2017