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Särskilda rådslag och fördrag



Rådslaget i Easton 30 januari 1777
En underligt okänd konferens som snarast hade med irokesernas ställning i Frihetskriget att göra.
Se artikel 

Some of the first settlers of ”The Forks of the Delaware” and their decendants / being a translation from the german of the record books of the First Reformed Church of Easton, Penna. : From 1760 to 1852. / translated and published by Henry Martyn Kieffer. - Pennsylvania : Eastton, 1902. - 404 p. : ill.

   Innehåller kyrkböcker typ födda och döda i den kalvinistiska First Reformed Church of Easton. Har sitt uppebara värde, men inte för indianhistorikern. Inte heller har sammanställaren kunskaper om den första Palatinerkolonisationen av the Forks. Värdet ligger i kapitlet ”The indian treaty of the church, januari 30 1877” En notis som antyder att indianernas diplomati måhända tog överdrivna svängar.  Man ville gärna ha konferenser med kolonierna väl ofta, förstås i syfte att erhålla gåvor. 

Kanske var det ändå så att området kallat the ”Forks of the Delaware” var en trakt som mestadels var en jaktmark för många (likt Kentucky blev) och dessutom på något sätt blev neutral mark för Easton blev föremål för ett antal förhandlingar och överenskommelser. Se: 


Easton Treaty Council Of 1777 Gave Birth To `Lost Peace'

February 02, 1992|by LANCE METZ, The Morning Call

Between 1756 and 1762, the infant settlement of Easton assumed an importance in American frontier history that it would never again reach.

During these years, it was the site of a series of treaty councils with the Native Americans of the eastern woodlands that helped to make possible the conquest of the Ohio Valley by British and colonial forces.

The complex and colorful story of the 1756-1762 Easton treaty councils has been related by many distinguished historians, but the final time Easton played a significant role in frontier diplomacy, the treaty council of 1777, has been almost forgotten. The outcome of this little-known meeting may be called, with some justification, the "lost peace."

During the early years of the American Revolution, a great effort was made by Continental leaders to ensure the neutrality of the Iroquois tribes who inhabited what is now central and northern New York State. The Iroquois confederacy had achieved great political and military importance because in its homeland were found the headwaters of rivers such as the Allegheny, the Mohawk, the Susquehanna, the Delaware and the Hudson. By striking down the natural corridors that were formed by these rivers, the Iroquois could raid the frontier settlements of New York and Pennsylvania and devastate the fields that supplied much of the food that was needed by the American army. A war with the Iroquois would also divert scarce American military resources from the struggle against the British. At all cost, American frontier diplomats wanted peace with the Iroquois.

In January of 1777 the Continental Congress meeting in Philadelphia received news that leaders of a portion of the Iroquois Confederacy and their allies who were living along the upper Susquehanna River planned to journey to Easton to confer with American authorities. It is not definitely known why Easton was selected as the site for this meeting, but it was probably picked due to its location at the junction of major frontier transportation routes and the prominent role that the small village had earlier played in frontier diplomacy.

In response to the information it had received concerning the Iroquois' intentions, the Continental Congress appointed a commission to meet with the tribesmen. It was led by two signers of the Declaration of Independence -- George Walton (1745-1804) of Georgia and Easton resident George Taylor (1716-1781). The commission appointed by the Continental Congress was joined by similar bodies appointed by Pennsylvania authorities, and the secretary for the combined delegation was the noted patriot author and propagandist Thomas Paine.

The Native American delegation that arrived in Easton on Jan. 5, 1777, must have presented a colorful sight since it was composed of 70 warriors accompanied by more than 100 women and children. The conference opened on Jan. 17, and its sessions were held in the recently built German Reformed and Lutheran Church, which still stands on N. Third Street.

It soon became apparent that the Iroquois present wished to make a treaty of peace with the Continental and Pennsylvania commissioners, who reported, "The Indians seem inclined to act the wise part with respect to the present dispute. If they are relied upon, they mean to be neuter. We have already learned their good intentions." On this hopeful note, the last treaty council to be held in Easton quickly resulted in a peace accord, and it was adjourned.

Unfortunately, the peace negotiated at Easton would prove to be of short duration. The British, with their experienced Indian Department, coupled with their ability to supply the Iroquois with manufactured goods and ammunition and the Native Americans' innate distrust of the land-hungry American frontiersmen, combined to induce the tribal warriors to cast their lot against the Americans.

By June of 1777, many of the same men who had sworn neutrality at Easton were fighting against frontier settlers or serving alongside the invading British armies of Burgoyne and St. Ledger. These forces attempted to split the rebellious colonies.

Thus, the treaty of January 1777 was truly a "lost peace," the memory of which would be wiped out by the ravages of the following six years of warfare.


© Staffan Jansson 2017